Throughput: 480 tests/hour 580 tests/hour with ISE
Test items on board: 36 items + ISE 3 items
Reaction volume: 120– 300 micro-liter
Patient samples on board: 72 patient samples, 30 STAT samples
Reaction volume: 140– 300 micro-liter
Test items on board: 24 items + ISE 3 items / 36 items + ISE 3 items
Patient samples on board: 30 patient samples
Throughput: 270 tests/hour 450 tests/hour with ISE
R1: 140 ～ 300μl (1μl step）
R2: 20 ～ 260μl (1μl step）
News and Announcements
The performance of current microfluidic methods for exosome detection is constrained by boundary conditions, as well as fundamental limits to microscale mass transfer and interfacial exosome binding. Some types of cancer, such as ovarian cancer, tend to remain undetected until they are too advanced for treatment to be effective. Now, an innovative tool may be able to detect cancer easily, quickly, and in minuscule amounts of blood. A device, which is called a "3D-nanopatterned microfluidic chip," could successfully detect cancer markers in the tiniest drop of blood or in a component of the blood called plasma.
Biochemists at the University of Kansas (Lawrence, KS, USA) and their colleagues have shown that a microfluidic chip designed with self-assembled three-dimensional herringbone nanopatterns can detect low levels of tumor-associated exosomes in plasma (10 exosomes μL−1, or approximately 200 vesicles per 20 μL of spiked sample) that would otherwise be undetectable by standard microfluidic systems for biosensing. The nanopatterns promote microscale mass transfer, increase surface area and probe density to enhance the efficiency and speed of exosome binding, and permit drainage of the boundary fluid to reduce near-surface hydrodynamic resistance, thus promoting particle–surface interactions for exosome binding.
The scientists used the device for the detection, in 2 μL plasma samples from 20 ovarian cancer patients and 10 age-matched controls, of exosome subpopulations expressing CD24, epithelial cell adhesion molecule and folate receptor alpha proteins. They suggest exosomal folate receptor alpha as a potential biomarker for early detection and progression monitoring of ovarian cancer. The nanolithography-free nanopatterned device should facilitate the use of liquid biopsies for cancer diagnosis.Read More: Lab Medica
Multiple myeloma is the second-most common type of blood cancer. Multiple myeloma occurs when plasma cells in the bone marrow, the cells that produce antibodies, proliferate out of control and lead to various type of organ failure and death. A major stumbling block, in diagnosing myeloma disease is the fact that each patient is unique and current blood tests are incapable of identifying early disease onset and classifying which patient should receive which treatment. Patients whose routine blood tests reveal some hallmarks of the disease in an early and precancerous stage are followed closely with a "watch and wait" strategy, but every year 1% of them will lose in this "Russian roulette" and develop the full-blown myeloma disease.
A large team of international scientists collaborating with the Weizmann Institute of Science (Rehovot, Israel) applied single cell RNA sequencing to study the heterogeneity of 40 individuals along the multiple myeloma progression spectrum, including 11 healthy controls, demonstrating high inter-individual variability that can be explained by expression of known multiple myeloma drivers and additional putative factors.
The new method sequences the RNA in thousands of individual cells from the patient blood or bone marrow, identifying the specific gene program that is active in each individual cell. In order to understand the myeloma cancer blueprint, the scientists first generated a high-resolution model of normal plasma cells by sequencing tens of thousands of cells from healthy individuals undergoing hip-replacements who served as a control group.Read More: Weizmann Institute of Science
Cirrhosis is an end-stage disease that invariably leads to death and it is the 14th most common cause of death in adults worldwide and results in 1.03 million deaths per year. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major causes of cirrhosis and 30% of deaths are attributable to HBV. Anemia is a common comorbidity in cirrhosis that is associated with poor prognosis. Erythrocyte abnormalities were clinically important and frequent findings in patients with chronic disease. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), a measurement of the average volume of red blood cells (RBCs), has been documented to be associated with an increase in many clinical conditions.
Scientists at the Xi"an Jiaotong University (Xi"an, People’s Republic of China) and their colleagues enrolled 463 patients diagnosed as having HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis in a hospital-based cross-sectional study from May 2013 to July 2016. Patients were classified into three groups according to anemia types, diagnosed based on their mean corpuscular volume level. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization’s hemoglobin thresholds, which is hemoglobin level of less than 130 g/L in males and less than 120 g/L in females. Among the 463 eligible participants, 304 had normocytic anemia, 123 had macrocytic anemia and 36 had microcytic anemia. The average age of participants was 54.3 ± 7.3 years and 63.5% of them were male. The data showed that patients with macrocytic anemia were older and had higher levels of bilirubin, international normalized ratio (INR) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) compared to patients with normocytic or microcytic anemia. Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was also observed to be higher in the macrocytic group. Conversely, the total cholesterol and albumin were relatively low.
The authors concluded that macrocytic anemia was found to be associated with the severity of liver impairment and might be a predictor for short-term mortality in patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis. The study was published on November 1, 2018, in the journal BMC Gastroenterology.Read More: Xi"an Jiaotong University
The increasing incidence of type-2 diabetes is a serious health issue worldwide. Its prevalence is associated with poor diet and unhealthy lifestyle choices, and it is characterized by high blood glucose levels that need to be controlled by medication. Nerve damage in the periphery (e.g. face, limbs, and organs) is a common complication of diabetes, with symptoms that range from numbness to pain, and can lead to debilitating loss of balance and co-ordination. Metformin is the recommended and most effective first-line drug for type-2 diabetes but its use has also been linked to vitamin B12 deficiency, which increases the risk of peripheral nerve damage.
Physicians at the Hucknall Road Medical Centre (Nottingham, UK) conducted an audit of vitamin B12 screening and deficiency among female, metformin-treated, patients with type-2 diabetes at their practice. The audit findings indicated that 64% of patients had not had their vitamin B12 levels checked at all and that 9.6% of patients were deficient but only 6.4% were being treated with vitamin B12. The study findings suggest that earlier detection of vitamin B12 deficiency through routine screening of all metformin-treated, type-2 diabetes patients could reduce their risk of developing irreversible, painful and potentially disabling nerve damage.
Kaenat Mulla, MD, the senior author of the study, said, “Our findings indicate that patients with diabetes taking metformin should be checked more frequently and that we need to ensure deficiencies are adequately treated to avoid irreversible nerve damage. Metformin remains the best treatment for type-2 diabetes, and these findings should not discourage patients from taking it, but encourage doctors to monitor vitamin B12 levels more routinely, so any deficiency can quickly be treated. Current British Society of Haematology guidelines recommend that vitamin B12 levels are checked only when there is clinical suspicion of deficiency. However, peripheral neuropathy is irreversible and it may be too late once symptoms have developed.” The study was presented at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference held November 19-21, 2018, in Glasgow, UK.Read More: Hucknall Road Medical Centre
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